Many services require access to a storage resource of some form. Juju charms can declare what storage requirements they have, and these can be allocated when the charm is deployed. Charms may declare several types of storage requirement (e.g. for persistent storage and an additional cache) so that resources can be allocated at a more granular level.
Storage support should be considered stable as of Juju version 1.25.
For the purposes of demonstration, we will use a charm which has been modified to support storage: cs:~axwalk/postgresql.
By default, charms with storage requirements will allocate those resources on the root filesystem of the unit where they are deployed.
To make use of additional storage resources, Juju needs to know what they are. Some providers (e.g. EC2) support generic default storage pools (see the documentation on provider support), but in the case of no default support or a desire to be more specific, Juju has the
juju storage command and subcommands to create and manage storage resources
juju storage --help juju storage add juju storage list juju storage pool list juju storage pool create juju storage volume list
As previously mentioned, a charm which requires storage will automatically allocate the default storage (unit filesystem) by default. It is possible to instead specify the storage to be used when the service is deployed, using constraints.
The constraints can specify the type/pool, size and count, of the storage required. At least one of the constraints must be specified, but otherwise they are all optional.
If pool is not specified, then Juju will select the default storage provider for the current environment (e.g. cinder for openstack, ebs for ec2, loop for local). If size is not specified, then Juju will use the minimum size specified in the charm's storage metadata, or 1GiB if the metadata does not specify. If count is not specified, then Juju will create a single instance of the store.
juju deploy <charm> --storage <label>=<pool>,<size>,count
For example, to deploy the postgresql service and have it use the unit’s local filesystem for 10 gibibytes of storage for its ‘data’ storage requirement:
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=rootfs,10G
We can also deploy using a local loop device
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=loop,5G
If the size is omitted...
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=rootfs
Juju will use a default size of 1GiB, unless the charm itself has specified a minimum value, in which case that will be used.
When deploying on a provider which supplies storage, the supported storage pool types may be used in addition to ‘loop’ and ‘rootfs’. For example, on using Amazon’s EC2 provider, we can make use of the default ‘ebs’ storage pool
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs,10G
Cloud providers may support more than one type of storage. For example, in the case of EC2, we can also make use of the ebd-ssd pool, which is SSD-based storage, and hence faster and better for some storage requirements.
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs-ssd
We can also merely specify the size, in which case Juju will use the default pool for the selected environment. E.g.
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=10G
Which, on the EC2 provider, will create a 10 gibibyte volume in the ‘ebs’ pool.
Charms may declare multiple types of storage, in which case they may all be specified using the constraint, or some or all can be omitted to accept the default values:
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs,10G cache=ebs-ssd
If the storage provider supports dynamically adding storage to a machine, then a service/unit deployed with storage may be placed on an existing machine. Not all providers support dynamic storage; for example, MAAS does not as it is providing an interface to physical hardware.
All environment providers support the following storage providers:
block-type, creates a file in the agent data-dir and attaches a loop device to it. See the Known Limitations section below for a comment on using the loop storage provider with local/LXC.
filesystem-type, creates a sub-directory in the agent's data-dir for the unit/charm to use
filesystem-type, creates a tmpfs
Additionally, native storage providers exist for the several major cloud providers, described below.
The EC2/EBS provider currently supports the following pool configuration attributes:
specifies the EBS volume type to create. You can use either the EBS volume type names, or synonyms defined by Juju (in parentheses): gp2 (ssd), io1 (provisioned-iops), standard (magnetic). By default, magnetic/standard volumes will be created. An 'ebs-ssd' pool is created in all EC2 environments, which defaults the volume type to ssd/gp2 instead.
the number of IOPS for provisioned-iops volume types. There are restrictions on minimum and maximum IOPS, as a ratio of the size of volumes; see the URL below for more information.
true|false, indicating whether or not to encrypt volumes created by the pool.
For information regarding EBS volume types, see the EBS documentation.
The OpenStack/Cinder provider does not currently have any configuration.
MAAS 1.8+ contains support for discovering information about machines' disks, and an API for acquiring nodes with specified disk parameters. Juju's MAAS provider has an integrated "maas" storage provider. This storage provider is static-only; it is currently only possible to deploy charms requiring block storage to a new machine in MAAS, and not to an existing machine.
The MAAS provider currently has a single configuration attribute:
a comma-separated list of tags to match on the disks in MAAS. For example, you might tag some disks as "fast"; you can then create a storage pool in Juju that will draw from the disks with those tags.
The Microsoft Azure provider does not currently have any configuration.
The Google Compute Engine provider does not currently have any configuration.
Storage requirements may be added to the 'metadata.yaml' of the charm as follows:
storage: data: type: filesystem description: junk storage shared: false # not yet supported, see description below read-only: false # not yet supported, see description below minimum-size: 100M location: /srv/data
Here the charm is asking for storage it is calling 'data', and it further defines a type and location. It is possible to specify as many entries as desired for storage, and all but the 'type' key are optional. The 'type' attribute specifies the type of the storage: filesystem or block (i.e. block device/disk). The 'minimum-size' attribute specifies the minimum size of the store, overriding the default of 1GiB if the user does not specify a size. The location specifies the path at which to mount filesystem-type storage. The 'read-only' and 'shared' attributes are currently not handled. Support will be added in a future version of Juju.
A filesystem-type store yields a directory in which the charm may store files. Block-type stores yield raw block devices -- typically disks or logical volumes. If the charm specifies a filesystem-type store, and the storage provider supports provisioning only disks, then a disk will be created, attached, partitioned, and a filesystem created on top. The filesystem will be presented to the charm, and rest of the details will be managed by Juju.
By default, stores are singletons; a charm will have exactly one of the specified store. It is also possible for a charm to specify storage that may have multiple instantiations, e.g. multiple disks to add to a pool. To do this, you can specify the "multiple" attribute:
storage: disks: type: block multiple: range: 0-10
The above says that the charm may have anywhere from zero to ten block devices allocated to the 'disks' store. The formats supported by "range" are: m (a fixed number), m-n (an explicit range), and m- (a minimum number).
Unless a number is explicitly specified during deployment, units of the service will be allocated the minimum number of storage instances specified in the charm metadata. It is then possible to add instances (up to the
maximum) by using the
juju storage add command, or using the
storage-add hook tool.
for each storage entity contained in the metadata.yaml, the following hooks may be implemented:
Each hook is prefixed with the name of the store, similar to how relation hooks are prefixed with the name of the relation. So, for example, if we had specified a need for storage labelled 'data', we would probably want to implement the hook 'data-storage-attached', which might look something like:
mountpoint=$(storage-get location) sed -i /etc/myservice.conf "s,MOUNTPOINT,$mountpoint"
The storage-attached hooks will be run before the install hook, so that the installation routine may use the storage. The storage-detaching hooks will be run before storage is detached, and always before the stop hook is run, to allow the charm to gracefully release resources before they are removed and before the unit terminates.
There are several hook tools available for dealing with storage within a charm, described below
storage-list may be used to list storage instances that are attached to the unit. The names returned may be passed through to storage-get.
storage-get may be used to obtain information about storage being attached to, or detaching from, the unit. If the executing hook is a storage hook, information about the storage related to the hook will be reported; this may be overridden by specifying the name of the storage as reported by storage-list, and must be specified for non-storage hooks.
storage-get should be used to identify the storage location during storage-attached and storage-detaching hooks. The exception to this is when the charm specifies a static location for singleton stores.
storage-add may be used to add storage to the unit. The tool takes the name of the storage (as in the charm metadata), and optionally the number of storage instances to add; by default it will add a single instance.
There is a modified version of the PostgreSQL charm using the storage feature. You can find the branch at https://code.launchpad.net/~axwalk/charms/trusty/postgresql/trunk.
Here is how you can go about using the new feature.
juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql pg-rootfs juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=loop,1G pg-loop juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs,10G pg-magnetic juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs-ssd,10G pg-ssd juju storage pool create ebs-iops ebs volume-type=provisioned-iops iops=300 juju deploy cs:~axwalk/postgresql --storage data=ebs-iops,10G pg-iops sleep $AWHILE juju storage list
[Storage] UNIT ID LOCATION STATUS PERSISTENT pg-iops/0 data/4 pending false pg-loop/0 data/1 /srv/data attached false pg-magnetic/0 data/2 /srv/data attached false pg-rootfs/0 data/0 /srv/data attached false pg-ssd/0 data/3 /srv/data attached false
Some providers have the option to detach storage from the lifespan of the instance(s) which created/used it. This means that even after services have been removed, the storage and its contents still exist in your cloud, which may be useful for backup, recovery or transport purposes.
For now, storage is always bound to a machine or unit, depending on how it is created. In the future, we will provide an interface for unbinding storage from the machine or unit, so that it is destroyed only when the environment is destroyed. This will make it possible to detach/reattach storage as desired.
Some providers, typically network filesystems, permit attaching storage to multiple machines. We intend to support multiple attachment within Juju. Shared storage will be assigned to a service, and each unit of the service will attach to the same shared storage instance.
It is not currently possible to upgrade a charm if it adds required storage, as there is no way to specify the storage constraints at upgrade time. Until such support is added, it is only possible to upgrade a charm from having no storage to having optional storage (i.e. minimum count of 0), and adding the storage after upgrade.
For LXC (local provider or not), you must currently set "allow-lxc-loop-mounts" for the loop storage provider to work. With the default AppArmor profile, LXC does not permit containers to mount loop devices. By setting allow-lxc-loop-mounts=true, you are explicitly enabling this, and access to all loop devices on the host.