Offline mode strategies

This is in connection with the Working offline page. See that resource for background information.

This page provides an overview of various types of services that can be implemented in order for Juju to live happily in an internet-deprived environment. Common tools that can be used to achieve such services are also listed.

The services of concern here are:

  • HTTP/S proxy
  • APT proxy
  • FTP proxy
  • APT mirror
  • Juju agent mirror
  • Cloud image mirror

HTTP/S proxy

The purpose of a forward HTTP/S proxy is to act as an intermediary for a client making any HTTP or HTTPS request. For our purposes, the client is a Juju machine.

Most such proxies include a caching ability. That is, the proxy will store the resulting data locally so that any subsequent request can be quickly satisfied.

The de-facto forward proxy solution on Ubuntu is squid.

Juju uses options http-proxy and https-proxy to denote these proxies.

No HTTP/S proxy

When an HTTP/S proxy is configured there may be destinations that should be excluded from using it.

Juju uses option no-proxy to represent these destinations.

In general, all instances within a cloud should be able to communicate directly with one another. It may, or it may not, be necessary to express this via the no-proxy variable. This is because the latter is limited to the HTTP and HTTPS protocols, which may not apply in every case. Nevertheless, it is often done out of simplicity.

No proxy and the localhost cloud

This "no proxy" idea is often used extensively with the localhost cloud at both the (shell) environment level and at the Juju level. The purpose being to ensure the client can connect with the local controller and that the local machines can inter-communicate, all without going through a proxy.

Hosts to exclude from the proxy include:

  • localhost & (standard 'no proxy' settings)
  • the address assigned to the regular Ethernet device
  • the address assigned to the host's LXD bridge (to talk to the controller via its API)
  • the entire subnet dedicated to the particular LXD installation

APT proxy

An HTTP/S or FTP proxy may not be configured to accept requests for APT packages. An APT proxy is identical to that of an HTTP/S or FTP proxy except that it applies specifically to APT package requests.

Some common implementations include:

Juju uses options apt-ftp-proxy, apt-http-proxy, and apt-https-proxy to set these proxies, depending on the protocol involved (i.e. FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS).

FTP proxy

A standard FTP proxy. Juju uses the ftp-proxy option for this type of proxy.

APT mirror

Instead of proxying client requests to an internet-based repository it is possible to maintain the repository internally. That is, you can have a copy or mirror of an Ubuntu package repository. This option has a large storage requirement and the initial setup/download time is considerable. Regular mirror synchronization will also be needed.

Here are some popular mirroring solutions:

Juju uses the apt-mirror option for this.

HTTP/S server

For any sort of mirror, an HTTP/S server (i.e. a web server) will be required to respond to the actual client requests. These are the most common ones:

Juju agent mirror

An agent that gets installed onto a Juju machine is proxied through the controller. If the latter cannot satisfy the request via its cache it will download the agent from the official agent site, and then pass it on to the machine. It is possible, however, to set up an agent mirror so the remote site is not solicited by the controller. Download the latest few agents and configure one of the aforementioned web servers accordingly. Updates to the mirrored agents will be needed as new versions of Juju itself become available.

Agent downloads can be performed manually from the above site where, for example, the file juju-2.3.1-ubuntu-amd64.tgz is the 2.3.1 agent for all Ubuntu releases for the AMD64 architecture.

Downloads can also be made with the juju sync-agent-binaries command. Note that this method results in a larger download as only the major and minor version numbers can be specified (e.g. 2.3 and not 2.3.1) and all architectures are retrieved. Additionally, there will be a file for every Ubuntu release even though they are all identical (e.g. juju-2.3.1-xenial-amd64.tgz == juju-2.3.1-bionic-amd64.tgz). Each one of these files is approximately 27 MiB in size.

Below, all 2.3 agents are retrieved and placed into a local directory:

mkdir -p /home/ubuntu/tmp/agents
juju sync-agent-binaries --version 2.3 --local-dir=/home/ubuntu/tmp/agents-2.3

Note: Once the agents are downloaded, the juju sync-agent-binaries command can also be used to push them to a model, thereby foregoing the need for a mirror.

Cloud images mirror

A mirror can be made of the official cloud images ( This will primarily be useful for a localhost cloud (LXD) but a local OpenStack installation can also make use of such a mirror if LXD containers are put on its instances.

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