In order to access your cloud, Juju needs to know how to authenticate itself. We use the term credentials to describe the material necessary to do this (e.g. username & password, or just a secret key). Such a set of credentials is represented by a credential name that is used to refer to those credentials in subsequent commands.
Juju selects a credential according to how many credentials are defined. If you have only one credential, or if a credential is labelled 'default', then this is the credential that will be used by Juju. When multiple credentials are defined, with no default, a credential name must be specified at the model level.
Juju supports three methods for adding credentials:
- Accepting credentials provided interactively by the user on the command line
- Scanning for existing credentials via environment variables and/or "rc" files (only supported by certain providers)
- Reading a user-provided YAML-formatted file
Note: LXD deployments are a special case. Accessed from a Juju admin user, they do not require credentials. Accessed from a non-admin user, a certificate credential is needed. See Additional LXD resources for details.
You can add credentials interactively in this way:
juju add-credential <cloud>
You will be asked for credential information based on the chosen cloud. Here we're adding credentials for cloud 'aws':
Enter credential name: carol Using auth-type "access-key". Enter access-key: ******* Enter secret-key: ******* Credentials added for cloud aws.
If you eventually set multiple credential names for the same cloud you will need to set one as the default:
juju set-default-credential <cloud> <credential-name>
The default credential will be used when creating a controller with the
bootstrap command. Otherwise, a credential can be specified with the
--credential option with both the
Certain cloud providers offer command line tools that rely on environment
variables to store credentials. Juju supports the scanning of such variables as
a way to add them to itself. Scanning is done with the
Any variables detected will cause a prompt to appear. You will be asked to confirm the addition of their respective values as well as to provide a name to call the credential set.
Note: You will need to rescan the variables if their values ever change. A scan only picks up current values.
There are three providers that use tools that support this variables method:
Each page provides details on using this method with its respective provider.
autoload-credentials command is also used to generate a certificate credential for localhost clouds. This is needed for providing access to non-admin Juju users. See Additional LXD resources.
You can use a YAML-formatted file to store credentials for any cloud. Below we
provide a sample file, which we will call
mycreds.yaml. It includes many of
the clouds supported by Juju and uses the most common options. Note the MAAS
cloud and the two OpenStack clouds, called 'homemaas', 'myopenstack' and
credentials: aws: default-credential: peter default-region: us-west-2 peter: auth-type: access-key access-key: AKIAIH7SUFMBP455BSQ secret-key: HEg5Y1DuGabiLt72LyCLkKnOw+NZkgszh3qIZbWv paul: auth-type: access-key access-key: KAZHUKJHE33P455BSQB secret-key: WXg6S5Y1DvwuGt72LwzLKnItt+GRwlkn668sXHqq homemaas: peter: auth-type: oauth1 maas-oauth: 5weWAsjhe9lnaLKHERNSlke320ah9naldIHnrelks myopenstack: default-region: region-a john: auth-type: access-key access-key: bae7651caeab41ed876cfdb342bae23e secret-key: 7172bc91a21c3df1787423ac12093bcc tenant-name: admin username: admin homestack: default-region: region-b peter: auth-type: userpass password: UberPassK3yz tenant-name: appserver username: peter google: peter: auth-type: jsonfile file: ~/.config/gcloud/application_default_credentials.json juju-gce-1-sa: auth-type: oauth2 project-id: juju-gce-1 private-key: | -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY----- MIIEvAIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKYwggSiAgEAAoIBAQCzTFMj0/GvhrcZ 3B2584ZdDdsnVuHb7OYo8eqXVLYzXEkby0TMu2gM81LdGp6AeeB3nu5zwAf71YyP erF4s0falNPIyRjDGYV1wWR+mRTbVjYUd/Vuy+KyP0u8UwkktwkP4OFR270/HFOl Kc0rzflag8zdKzRhi7U1dlgkchbkrio148vdaoZZo67nxFVF2IY52I2qGW8VFdid z+B9pTu2ZQKVeEpTVe5XEs3y2Y4zt2DCNu3rJi95AY4VDgVJ5f1rnWf7BwZPeuvp 0mXLKzcvD31wEcdE6oAaGu0x0UzKvEB1mR1pPwP6qMHdiJXzkiM9DYylrMzuGL/h VAYjhFQnAgMBAAECggEADTkKkJ10bEt1FjuJ5BYCyYelRLUMALO4RzpZrXUArHz/ CN7oYTWykL68VIE+dNJU+Yo6ot99anC8GWclAdyTs5nYnJNbRItafYd+3JwRhU0W vYYZqMtXs2mNMYOC+YNkibIKxYZJ4joGksTboRvJne4TN7Et/1uirr+GtLPn+W/e umXfkpbOTDDAED8ceKKApAn6kLIW98DwHyK0rUzorOgp4DFDX9CjuWC+RG3CFGsk oVOcDuTevJlb9Rowj1S2qYhGjuQVpVD7bcRg5zaSJKS88YbK63DCHZFpXn9JR0Fg Vou9dnc99FdMo5vtHg7Adxh91gdqEvoaF1lHx8Var0q32QDse+spvv7K6/+7G35k 3+1gDgF74/uMr/AVrjpoUjmGAuWweXY/vn1MVN2Uld4KPYafkOF8oTuDK5f1fu0d cMEoKRSXQh1NCD3PZWfQt4ypYPzn9R+VBGwnBcPorytlhM9qdLxKKlaHjBlprS6Y Be1z6FO+MqWhFlwPrKH/2uwd4QKBgQDCGESJur9OdEeroBQyYyJF7DnJ/+wHSiOr qzvb9YW1Ddtg1iiKHHZO5FS59/D62kPaGsysCMKxI9FW53TzSxUiTaEG636C5v8J eRdzxX04BNYNzqXbm1agBEjAa7tK8xJAjk0to4zqadUaYZog0uQs2X7Aexj2c9T/ HQVLILHjBwKBgD/yuoLNbST+cGbuZl1s2EnTP796xPkkUm3qcUzofzmn6uivz7Qp FMThZhHZ/Der98tra91a4e8fHaUTL5d4eCMeCL1mWXoNMnm02D/ugpEC8yDefi3T xlM/Ed0IEVogcd49tvTvQfrhfbW/6Que/rkLKCoUlAldfIOYkS4YyyTBAoGACCpH L9gYVi+UGEc6skfzWCew4quOfVwEFiO09/LjNhOoJ/G6cNzzqSv32H7yt0rZUeKQ u6f+sL8F/nbsN5PwBqpnXMgpYU5gakCa2Pb05pdlfd00owFs6nxjpxyhG20QVoDm BEZ+FhpvqZVzi2/zw2M+7s/+49dJnZXV9Cwi758CgYAquNdD4RXU96Y2OjTlOSvM THR/zY6IPeO+kCwmBLiQC3cv59gaeOp1a93Mnapet7a2/WZPL2Al7zwnvZYsHc4z nu1acd6D7H/9bb1YPHMNWITfCSNXerJ2idI689ShYjR2sTcDgiOQCzx+dwL9agaC WKjypRHpiAMFbFqPT6W2uA== -----END PRIVATE KEY----- client-id: "206517233375074786882" client-email: firstname.lastname@example.org azure: peter: auth-type: service-principal-secret application-id: niftyapp subscription-id: 31fb132e-e774-49dd-adbb-d6a4e966c583 application-password: UberPassK3yz joyent: peter: auth-type: userpass sdc-user: admingal sdc-key-id: 2048 00:11:22:33:44:55:66:77:88:99:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff private-key: key (or private-key-path, like `~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub`) algorithm: "rsa-sha256" vsphere: ashley: auth-type: userpass password: passw0rd user: email@example.com
Credentials are added to Juju on a per-cloud basis. To add credentials for the defined 'azure' cloud, for instance, we would do this:
juju add-credential azure -f mycreds.yaml
Note: All available authentication types are outlined in section Adding clouds manually on the Clouds page.
There are several management tasks that can be done related to credentials.
When credentials are added to Juju they become available to use on a controller and its models. There are therefore two categories of credentials: those that are available and those that are currently in use.
You can display what credentials are available by running the command:
Cloud Credentials aws bob*, carol google wayne
The asterisk '*' denotes the default credential, which will be used for the named cloud unless another is specified.
To reveal actual authentication material (e.g. passwords, keys):
juju list-credentials --format yaml --show-secrets
local-credentials: aws: bob: auth-type: access-key access-key: AKIAXZUYGB6UED2GNC5A secret-key: StB2bmL1+tX+VX7neVgy/3JosJAwOcBIO53nyCVp
Notice how the output says 'local-credentials', meaning they are stored on the local Juju client.
To see what credentials are in use by a model (here the 'default' model):
juju show-model default
default: name: admin/default ... ... credential: name: bob owner: admin cloud: aws
models --format yaml command also shows this information, albeit for all
The above commands do not display authentication material. To view the active credentials, including the cloud name, credential names, and the names of models:
juju show-credentials --show-secrets
controller-credentials: aws: bob: content: auth-type: access-key access-key: AKIAXZUYGB6UED2GNC5A secret-key: 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 models: controller: admin default: admin
Notice how the output says 'controller-credentials', meaning they are stored on the controller.
show-credentials command queries the controller to get its information.
You can set the default credential for a cloud:
juju set-default-credential aws carol
- This affects operations that require a newly-input credential (e.g.
juju add-model). In particular, it does not change what is currently in use (on a controller).
- If only one credential name exists, it will become the effective default credential.
To update an existing credential locally use the
add-credential command with
Here we decided to use the file 'mycreds.yaml' from a previous example:
juju add-credential aws -f mycreds.yaml --replace
This will overwrite existing credential information, so make sure all current credentials are contained in the file, not just the new or changed one.
Updating credentials in this way does not update credentials currently in use
(on an existing controller/cloud). See the next section for that. The
add-credential command is always "pre-bootstrap" in nature.
To update credentials currently in use (i.e. cached on the controller) the
update-credential command is used. The requirements for using this command,
as compared to the initial
juju bootstrap (or
juju add-model) command, are:
- same cloud name
- same Juju username (logged in)
- same credential name
The update is a two-step process. First change the credentials locally with the
add-credential command (in conjunction with the
--replace option) and then
upload those credentials to the controller.
Below, we explicitly log in with the correct Juju username ('admin'), change the contents of the credential called 'joe', and then update them on a Google cloud controller:
juju login -u admin juju add-credential --replace joe juju update-credential google joe
If you are unable to ascertain the original Juju username then you will need to use a different one. This implies adding a new credential name, copying over any authentication material into the old credential name, and finally updating the credentials. Below we demonstrate this for the Azure cloud:
Add a new temporary credential name (like 'new-credential-name') and gather all credential sets (new and old):
juju add-credential azure juju credentials azure --format yaml --show-secrets > azure-creds.yaml
Copy the values of
application-password from the new set
to the old set.
Then replace the local credentials and upload them to the controller:
juju add-credential azure -f azure-creds.yaml --replace juju update-credential azure old-credential-name
To be clear, the file
azure-creds.yaml (used with
look similar to:
Credentials: azure: new-credential-name: auth-type: service-principal-secret application-id: foo1 application-password: foo2 subscription-id: bar old-credential-name: auth-type: service-principal-secret application-id: foo1 application-password: foo2 subscription-id: bar
If a local credential (i.e. not cached on a controller) is no longer required, it can be removed:
juju remove-credential aws bob